THRA | Papers & Proceedings
In its Papers and Procedings, the Tasmanian Historical Research Association publishes original papers on the history of Tasmania, and on other places where there is a considerable Tasmanian connection.

Three issues are  published annually. Each issue contains, generally,  papers presented at monthly meetings, book reviews and  papers accepted by the editor  for publication.

Four volumes of indexes crosss-reference every paper up to 2013. They may be purchased here.

Our guidelines for submission are below. A PDF detailing our Style conventions is here.

To purchase full text PDFs of Papers and Proceedings through the Informit database and download them instantly click here

Hard copies of most issues of Papers and Procedings are  available here.

Guidelines for Submitting papers to Papers and Proceedings

Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome and authors do not have to be members of THRA. The Editor reserves the right to decline publication.

Papers that have been or are about to be published elsewhere will not be considered for publication.

The copyright of papers published in Papers and Procedings remains with authors. Apart from fair dealing permitted under the provisions of the Copyright Act, requests to reproduce extracts from a paper will be forwarded to the relevant author.

In general, the text of papers should not exceed 10,000 words. An author proposing to write a longer paper should discuss this with the Editor before submitting. Shorter papers are welcome. When submitting a paper, please supply your full contact details, including an email address and a phone number.

Illustrations are very welcome, but authors will need to supply photographs and other graphics as separate production-quality electronic files (jpgs or tiffs scanned at 300 dpi and at A4 in size). Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce illustrations where this is required, and will need to supply documentation. The inclusion of specific illustrations will be at the discretion of the Editor.

Papers should be sent to the Editor as Microsoft Word documents on disk, accompanied by a double-spaced typescript in hard copy. Images for inclusion as illustrations should be copied on to the disk as separate jpg or tiff files. 

The copy of the paper and the disk should be posted to: The Editor, THRA P&P, PO Box 441, Sandy Bay 7006

Papers can be submitted by email to However, any images to be included in the paper will need to be submitted on disk and posted to the Editor.

Contributions will be acknowledged soon after they are received. If the Editor fails in this, a reminder will be welcomed.

Authors receive a copy of their edited paper to review before the text is finalised and will also be asked to proofread their paper before it is forwarded to the printers. In addition, a proof copy from the printers is sent to each author for checking before it is authorised for printing.

An author is sent three complimentary copies of the Papers and Procedings in which his or her paper appears.

Style conventions

The style conventions that are followed in Papers and Procedings are based on the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, sixth edition, John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, Canberra, 2000, pp. 49–135. A summary of the main conventions follows, with the items listed in alphabetical order. The style conventions that apply to footnotes and citations are listed separately.

Abbreviations and contractions

Abbreviations consist of the first letter of a word, usually some other letters, but not the last letter.

  • Abbreviations – such as Mon. Co. Vic. para. – always have a full stop at the end.

Contractions consist of the first and last letters of a word and sometimes some other letters in between.

  • Contractions – such as, Mr Cwlth Pty Ltd Rd – do not have a full stop at the end.

We prefer not to use abbreviations and contractions in the text of a paper. However, they are acceptable in footnotes, except for a first citation.

Acronyms and initialisms

Acronyms are strings of initial letters (and sometimes other letters) pronounced as a word.

  • For example, Qantas, Anzac, ATSIC, COAG, scuba, sonar, radar, THRA

Initialisms are strings of initial letters (and sometimes other letters) not pronounced as a word.

  • For example, AOT, NSW, CPI, AMP, SBS, TV, HRA, ADB

Full stops are not used in either acronyms or in initialisms. In the text of a paper we prefer not to include initialisms and to include acronyms only when they are generally recognised as proper nouns, such as Qantas, Anzac, scuba, sonar and so on. Otherwise, please spell out initialisms and acronyms wherever possible. In footnotes we encourage the use of acronyms and initialisms in all entries except a first citation.


Capitals are kept to a minimum in both text and footnotes.

In headings and subheading, as well as in the titles of papers, capitals generally are used only for the first word and for proper nouns. For example, in titles, ‘The reminiscences of Captain James William Robinson’; ‘Michael Sharland: for nature and heritage’. In headings: ‘Trouble with the Ralston Trust’; ‘Sequence of events’, ‘The school house’, ‘The ups and downs of Tasmanian Orangeism’.

For the titles of books cited in the paper, capitals are used only for the first word and for proper nouns. For example: The rise of freemasonry in Tasmania; Closing Hell’s Gates: the death of a convict station. This rule also applies to the titles of articles published in periodicals.

However, for the title of a periodical – newspapers, magazines and journals – we retain the capitalisation used by the publisher. For example: Australian Financial Review; Sydney Morning Herald; Mercury; Tasmanian Historical Research Association Papers and Procedings; Journal of Police History; Magazine of the Australian Early Childhood Association.

Note that most newspapers no longer use the definite article as part of their title. Hence, Mercury not The Mercury.


Use the form 17 March 2005.

En rules

The en rule is used for:

  • spans of numbers, such as, 1–20; 115–21
  • spans of years 1907–20; 2007–08
  • indicating an association between words. For example, Commonwealth–state agreement; Asia–Pacific region, a parent–child relationship, hand–eye coordination


Italics are used for:

  • the titles of all publications (books, periodicals, plays, long poems, musical compositions, films, videos, TV and radio programs); and
  • the names of landed estates, houses and ships; the scientific names of animals and plants; for legislation when cited in full (State Services Act 2000), and for legal cases. Italics are also used for words or phrases that have not been fully accepted into English. Please refer to the Macquarie Dictionary as the authority on whether a phrase has been accepted.

We do not use italics for:

  • quotations; and
  • the titles of articles, chapters in books, unpublished theses or reports. Instead, place these titles in single quotation marks.

Numbers, money and time

Use words for numbers up to 100 and numerals thereafter.

Exceptions are: fractions, such 12½ or 12.5; lists where both the following formats are acceptable: 105 sacks, 66 bags and 12 boxes; or 105 sacks, sixty-six bags and twelve boxes.

For numbers above 999, use a comma to separate sets of three digits: 5,473; 643,000. For very large numbers, the accepted alternatives are: five million; 2.5 million.

Use digits for money and time. For example: $68; £9 6s 5d; 6 o’clock; 6 am (but use threepence and sixpence, rather than 3d and 6d; and ten shillings and fifteen shillings, rather than 10s and 15s.)

For spans of years use the en rule. For example: 2008–09; 1806–07; or 1804–1806.

For number ranges use the en rule: 11–17; 61–6; 210–33; 610–775.


If a quote has fewer than thirty words it is enclosed in single quotation marks and retained within the text. To indicate quotes within a quotation use double quotation marks.

If the quote is 30 words or more it should be displayed as a separate paragraph, indented two centimetres left and right, and reduced by one font size. Do not place the indented paragraph in quotation marks. Quotes within the indented quotation are enclosed in single quotation marks.

All quotations must follow the original spelling and punctuation. To indicate an omission, use three ellipsis points with a space before and after the three points.


Use a single space after all punctuation, including at the end of a sentence.

Indent the first line of a paragraph.

However, do not:

  • indent the first paragraph in the paper
  • indent the first paragraph following a heading or subheading
  • indent any paragraph that comes directly after a figure or a quotation
  • insert a line space between paragraphs

Do not insert spaces between the letters of commonly used acronyms and initialisms, or between the initial letters of given names. For example: JS Brown, AJP Taylor, ATSIC, SBS, ABS, NSW, THRA.


Footnotes follow the conventions of the documentary-note system, as outlined on pp. 190, 208–15 of Style manual for authors, editors and printers, sixth edition.

Style requirements

Do not use Latin expressions such as ibid., op. cit., vide supra., loc. cit.

While footnotes should consist mainly of citations, explanatory comments can also be included.

To link each footnote electronically to the text, use superscript Arabic numerals as in-text identifiers.

Place in –text identifiers immediately after indented quotes (following the final punctuation mark); and in paragraphs,

place identifiers after the punctuation mark at the end of a sentence or at the end of a clause or phrase.

Do not place footnote identifiers in titles, headings or subheadings.

Use only one identifier at each reference point even when multiple sources are cited.

When citing a number of references in support of a particular statement in the text, use a semicolon to separate each reference. But use full stops between references that relate to different statements in the preceding text. Standard punctuation rules apply to explanatory comments and to any additional information included in the footnote. Where the source of additional information is cited, place the citation after the information.


All elements of a citation are separated by commas, and a full stop is placed at the end of the citation.

Given names or initial letters precede the surname of an author or editor. Do not use a full stop after initial letters and do not place a space between two or more initial letters. For example, AJ Bigge, NG Butlin, AGL Shaw

For edited books the name of the editor is followed by (ed.) or editors (eds). Note that a full stop is not required after eds

For page numbers use the form: p. 5; pp. 22, 35, 66–79; pp. 256–8. Exception: 16–19 rather than 16–9; 12–14 rather than 12–4. Note that both a full stop and a space are required after the ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ and that spans of numbers are linked using an en rule.

Archives Office of Tasmania

Archives Office of Tasmania, AA827/1/5, H Wright to COH Miller.

Subsequent references should be in the form: AOT, AA827/1/5. Additional information is included only when it is needed to make the citation explicit.


For the first citation of a book provide the full bibliographic details in the following order, with the title of the book in italics:

A Rowntree, The early settlement of Sandy Bay, Mercury Press, Hobart, 1959, p. 42.

R Davis, Open to talent: the centenary history of the University of Tasmania 1890–1990, University of Tasmania, Hobart, 1990, p. 9–17.

In subsequent citations use the surname and page number: Davis, pp. 45–8.

When the author has been cited for more than one publication, subsequent citations should include the title, as in: Davis, Open to talent, pp. 116–23. Where the title is long, a shortened form is acceptable.

Parliamentary Papers

Name of state, Parliament, name of journal including the year, volume number, name of report or procedings, Parliamentary Paper number, date, page numbers.

For example:

Tasmania, Parliament, Journal and Printed Papers of Parliament 1882, vol. CIX, ‘Fisheries of Tasmania: Report of the Royal Commission’, Parliamentary Paper 139, 31 October 1882, pp. 6–15.

For subsequent references use this form (include the page numbers where these differ): Tasmania, Parliament, JPPP 1982, Parliamentary Paper 139

Periodicals – journals, magazines and newspapers

When citing an article or paper from a periodical the name of the periodical is placed in italics and written exactly as used by the publishers of that journal, magazine or newspaper. Retain the original capitalisation and any abbreviations used in the name, such as the ampersand.

The name of the article or paper is placed in single quotes.

The first citation for and article or paper published in a periodical should include the following information: authorship details, with initials preceding the surname, title of article, title of periodical (followed by, if applicable, series title, volume number, issue number or other identifier), date of publication, page numbers.

The volume number and issue number are shown in the form: vol. 3, no. 5. For example:

S Prout-Hill, ‘Lecture on the principles of taste’, Colonial Times, vol. 37, no. 2138, 3 July 1849, p. 3.

M Salmon, ‘An old time circus’, Australian Town & Country Journal, 3 August 1904, p. 34.

For subsequent citations use the author’s name and the relevant page number.

Where there is more than one citation for that author, include the minimum of additional information needed to identify the reference.

State Library

State Library of [name of state], branch, document details.

For example:

State Library of Tasmania, Tasmaniana Library, logbook of the barque Wallaby, 5 April 1840 to 15 September 1840.

State Library of Tasmania, Tasmaniana Library, microfilm PMB 285.

State Library of New South Wales, Mitchell Library, ML AS91/2.

For subsequent references use the form:

State Library of Tas., logbook of the Wallaby, 5 April 1840 to 15 September 1840

State Library of Tas., PMB 285

State Library of NSW, ML AS91/2


Name of author, title of thesis (in single quotation marks), level, university and date. For example:

T Brown, ‘Fight the good fight’, MA thesis, University of Melbourne, 1988.

For subsequent references use the author’s surname (and page number if different from the first citation), except when there is more than one citation for that author. In that case, include the title (and the date, if preferred). For example:

Brown, p. 109.

Brown, ‘Fight the good fight’, 1988, pp. 76–98.

Web citations

Archives Office of Tasmania, Colonial Tasmanian Family Links Detail, viewed 15 May 2007,

For subsequent references use the form: abbreviated name of site, title of document.

AOT, Colonial Tasmanian Family Links Detail.

When a reference is just to the site, rather than to a particular document at that site, use this form.

Australian War Memorial website,

For subsequent references, cite the address only:

^ top of the page
Content Image